What is telecommunications (telecom)?
Telecommunications, also called telecom, is the exchange of information over significant distances by electronic means and refers to all types of voice, data and video transmission. It is a broad term that includes a wide range of information transmission technologies and communications infrastructure, such as landline telephones; mobile devices, such as cell phones; microwave communications; the optical fiber; satellites; radio and television broadcasting; the Internet; and telegraphs.
A complete and unique telecommunication circuit consists of two stations, each equipped with a transmitter and a receiver. Transmitter and receiver of any station can be combined into one device called transmitter receiver. The signal transmission medium can be via electrical wire or cable – also known as the copper — fiber optics, electromagnetic fields or light. The transmission and reception of data in free space by means of electromagnetic fields is called wireless communication.
Types of telecommunications networks
The simplest form of telecommunication takes place between two stations, but it is common for multiple transmitting and receiving stations to exchange data with each other. Such an arrangement is called a telecom network. The Internet is the largest example of a telecommunications network. On a smaller scale, here are some examples:
- corporate and academic wide area networks (WANs);
- telephone networks;
- cellular networks;
- communication systems for the police and fire brigade;
- taxi dispatch networks;
- groups of amateur radio operators (amateurs); and
- broadcast networks.
Data is transmitted in a telecommunications circuit by means of an electrical signal called transporter or the carrier wave. For a carrier to transmit information, some form of modulation is required. The modulation mode can be broadly classified as analog or digital.
In analog modulation, certain aspects of the carrier vary continuously. The oldest form of analog modulation is amplitude modulation (AM), which is still used in broadcasting at certain frequencies. Digital modulation actually predates AM; the first form was Morse code. Modern telecommunications use internet protocols to transport data through underlying physical transmissions.
Telecommunications industry and service providers
Telecommunications systems are generally operated by telecommunications service providers, also known as communications service providers. These providers historically offered telephone and related services and now offer a variety of Internet and WAN services, as well as metropolitan area network (MAN) and global services.
In many countries, telecommunications service providers were primarily owned and operated by the state. This is no longer the case, and many have been privatized. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the United Nations (UN) agency that administers telecommunications and broadcasting regulations, although most countries also have their own government agencies to set and enforce telecommunications guidelines. matters of telecommunications. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the main regulatory body.
A large number of companies provide different types of telecommunications services, including Internet Service Providers (ISP)telecommunications equipment vendors, wireless service providers, radio and television broadcasters, cable companies, satellite TV providers and managed service providers (MSP).
The three main segments of the telecommunications industry are the manufacturers of telecommunications equipment, telecommunications services and wireless communications. Within these sectors, telecommunications equipment – which includes customer equipment, such as routers and modems; transmission equipment, such as transmission lines and wireless semiconductors; and analog or digital public switching equipment – is the largest, and wireless communications are the smallest.
Major global service providers include the following:
- Japanese Telegraph and Telephone (NTT)
- China Mobile Limited
- Deutsche Telekom AG
- SoftBank Group
- China Telecom
- Telefonica AG
- America Movil
Recently, service providers have focused on growing services, such as data and video, as opposed to voice communication services.
history of telecommunications
Word telecommunications comes from the Greek prefix TV-which means “distant”, combined with the Latin word communicatewhich means “share”.
Major telecommunications technologies include the telegraph, telephone, radio, television, video telephony, satellites, closed computer networks and the public internet.
- 1876. The first telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. This early model required an interpreter, or telegrapher, at both ends. These early phones were intercom systems, where two phones were connected directly.
- 1877. The invention of the standard telephone system allowed any combination of two telephone lines to connect and talk to each other.
- 1891. Rotary telephones were invented which circumvented the need for an operator on every call. This made it much faster and easier to make phone calls.
- 1947. The transistor was invented, which led to the development of modern electronics, such as computers and calculators.
- 1948. Microwaves began to be used to transmit telephone signals, in places where telephone wires did not exist.
- 1960. Telephones began to move from mechanical switching to electronic switching, which enabled features such as voice mail, speed dial, and caller ID.
- 1984. The Bell System, which gave AT&T a virtual monopoly over telecommunications services in the United States, was dismantled, opening up competition to other providers.
- 1984. The use of cellular telephone and Personal Communications Services (PCS), which offered mobile communications beyond the use of two-way radio, was introduced.
- 1990s. The use of the modern internet has become widespread.
- 2000s and beyond. The first decade of the 2000s saw mobile phones becoming increasingly sophisticated. In 2012, the use of smartphones was widespread.